Winter Tree List




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bullet *Ginkgo: not evergreen; spurs; leaf scars far apart. 



Resinous juice; leaves, needles or scales. 

bullet White Pine: 5 leaves in a bundle; cone scales thin. 
bullet Pitch Pine: 3 leaves in a bundle; scale thick, spine.
bullet *Red Pine: 2 leaves in a bundle, slender, flexible.
bullet Australian Pine: 2 leaves in a bundle, stiff, thick.
bulletScotch Pine: 2 leaves in a bundle; cones point backwards.
bullet American Larch: deciduous; spurs; cone 3/4 in., few scales.
bullet *European Larch: many leaves in cluster; cone I in., many scales.
bullet  Black Spruce: cone nearly spherical, persistent.
bullet *Norway Spruce: cone more than 3 in.; leaves all around stem.
bullet  Hemlock: leaves 2-ranked, whitened beneath, flattened. 
bullet White Cedar: leaves awl-like; globular cone; swamps. 
bullet *Arbor Vitae: 2 ranked spray; small tree; hedges. 
bullet Red Cedar: bluish berry; dry hills; red heart-wood. juniper: berry axillary; leaves prickly pointed, 3 in whorl. 



Twigs slender, buds alternate; stipule scars. 

bullet Yellow Willow: Yellow twig. 
bullet *Weeping Willow: drooping branches; ornamental. 
bullet *White Poplar: retains whitish green bark; wooly twigs. 
bullet American Aspen: buds reddish, slightly sticky, appressed.
bullet Large-toothed Aspen: buds downy, small. 
bullet *Balm of Gilead: fragrant buds, resinous, large. 
bullet *Carolina Poplar: light yellow twigs; appressed buds. 
bullet *Lombardy Poplar: sharply up-carved branches. 



Twigs stout, tough; buds alternate. 

bullet Butternut: terminal bud longer than broad; brown pith. 
bullet Black Walnut: nut spherical, thick shell; slightly shaggy. 
bulletMockernut: brown, thick-shelled nut, smooth ridges. 
bullet Pignut: nut nearly spherical, thick shell; slightly shaggy. 
bullet Butternut: thin shell; superposed buds, yellow, dotted. 
bullet BIRCH FAMILY: LenticeIs horizontally elongated; buds alternate. 
bullet Hop Hornbeam: fruit like hop; dark brown, flaky. 
bullet American Hornbeam: bark gray, twisted, along streams. 
bullet Black Birch: dark bark, not peeling, aromatic. 
bullet Yellow Birch: yellow bark, peeling, aromatic, twigs, long hairs. 
bullet American Canoe Birch : white bark, papery layers. 
bullet Gray Birch: dingy, gray bark, not papery; twigs resinous. 
bullet Speckled Adler: cone-like catkins, lateral, erect. 
bullet Smooth Alder: cone-like catkins, terminal, erect. 



Buds alternate; stipule scars. 

bullet American Beech: bluish gray bark; long buds; dead leaves. 
bullet Chestnut: burs; 2-ranked buds, oblique to leaf scar. 
bullet White Oak: young branches not peeling; large buds. 
bullet Swamp White Oak: young branches scaly, acorns long-stalked.
bullet Chestnut Oak; bark not flaky, round ridged; cup thin; acorn sessile. 
bullet P Red Oak: rusty hairs apex bud; large flat cup; flat flutings. 
bulletP in Oak: smooth, continuous trunk; saucer cup; low grounds. 
bullet Scarlet Oak: bark gray, red inside; cup conical base. 
bullet Black Oak: bark gray, yellow inside; buds pale, wooly. 
bullet Scrub Oak: shrun; sterile ground; smooth bark; many acorns. 



Buds alternate; terminal bud absent.

bulletSlippery Elm: inner bark mucilaginous, rough gray twigs. 
bullet American Elm: drooping branches; whitish layers of bark. 
bullet Hackberry: drupe; chambered pith; galls; bark ridged, warts. 
bullet *White Mulberry: many small branches, cut twig milky. 
bullet *Red Mulberry: darker twigs; dark margined bud-scales; twigs aromatic. 



Buds alternate; stipule scars. 

bullet Tulip Tree: fruiting cones; winged seeds; twigs curve up.



Buds alternate; no stipules; twigs aromatic

bullet Sassafras: twigs aromatic, green, mucilaginous. 



Buds alternate; stipule scars. 

bullet Witch Hazel: fruit 2 chambered capsule; flowers in fall. 
bullet *Sweet-Gum: fruit cluster spherical, spiny; corky ridges. 



Buds alternate; stipule scars meet. 

bullet Buttonwood: upper trunk white areas; no terminal bud. 



Buds alternate; stipule scars, 3-fibre scars. 

bullet Shad Bush: long narrow buds; berry-like fruit; diseased. 
bullet English Hawthorne: unbranched thorns: drupe-like pome. 
bullet Choke Cherry: smooth bark; lenticels do not elongate. 
bullet Wild Red Cherry: many small terminal buds; recent clearings. 



Buds alternate; stipule scars; fruit a pod. 

bullet Honey Locust: branched thorns; smooth buds. 
bullet Common Locust; paired thorns; downy buds. 
bullet *Kentucky Coffee Tree: narrow ridged bark; stout twigs. 
bullet *Redbud: shrub; flower buds on old growth; ornamental. 



Buds alternate; no stipules; twigs stout. 

bullet *Ailanthus: seed in center of wing; solitary buds. 



Shrubs; buds alternate; pithy twigs. 

bullet Staghorn Sumac: velvet hairs; red berries. 
bullet Smooth Sumac: smooth twigs; red berries. 
bullet Poison Sumac: terminal bud; white berries; swamps. 



Opposite buds; slender branches; fruit wings 

bullet Rock Maple: twigs fork; keys persist; bud sharp, many scales 
bullet White Maple: flaky bark; collateral buds; twigs curve up. 
bullet Red Maple: red twigs; collateral buds; usually swamps. 
bullet *Norway Maple- ridged bark; red, hairy buds, leaf-scars meet. 
bullet *Sycamore Maple: flaky bark; green buds; leaf-scars not meet. 
bullet *Box Elder: green twigs; downy buds; leaf-scars V-shaped. 



Qpposite buds; stout branches. 

bullet *Horse Chestnut: large twigs, leaf-scars and sticky buds. 
bullet LINDEN FAMILY: Buds alternate; bark mucilaginous, tough. 
bullet *Linden: buds bright, 2-3 scales show; twigs flat, zigzag. 



  Fruit berry-like. 

bullet Flowering Dogwood: opposite leaf-scars; large flower buds. 
bullet Tupelo: horizontal branches; pith partitioned; lowlands; blueberry. 



Opposite buds; stout brittle twigs; fruit winged. 

bullet White Ash: leaf scars concave; ridged bark. 
bullet Red Ash: downy twigs; upper margin leaf-scar not concave.
bulletBlack Ash: scaly bark; black buds. 


Opposite buds; twigs stout. 

bullet *Catalpa: three leaf-scars at node; bundle scars meet.

*Commonly cultivated.

See Also:

Winter Trees

Ernest Seton's "Trees of the Northeast"






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Last modified: October 15, 2016.