First Aid Uses
NOT YET EDITED
FIRST AID USES
HE neckerchief in its triangular bandake'J~i~,As
probably of the greatest use, and any pers641wjtil~
a knowledge of triangular bandage first aM '~i=
; o ea Vsiy ajdapt it to the neckerchief. The Scout siie ker
is i little skimpy for some first aid uses, but by utifizw,',
thi~ extra fold of tAe double triangle, more latitude can b6i
obtained.in making some of the dressings, especially thi
sling for a broken arm.
.' 1, e
, ~ot us first consider th triangular neckerchief for its possibilities in rescuing persons from burning buildings, etc. t"is pre supposed that persons who are carried in these ways are.uninjured persons, aside from their being'suffocated or weak.
For Fire Rescue
The first of these rescue uses is, that of the Fireman's Drag (1)4', in which the rescuer crawls in on hands and knees with. face close to the floor to locate a person who is overcome by smoke. Lying down beside the victim whom he discovers on the floor, the rescuer crosses the hands of his patient and ties them together with a 5 uati knot. He then shoves his head through the, loop, hiazll by the t4ed hands and crawls along the floor dragging Ws patient,beneath him. The slight lift which he gives with his head and shoulders eases the strain of the drag on the patient.
outside the building, or where the air i's gobdv
the. rescuer 'transfers his efforts from the floor to the Tied'
Hands Carry (2). He rises from his knees to his feet, still
a$tride the body,'puts his arms around the waist of the
patient 'and draws him to a standing position as he walks
Niaward, blocking the patient's knees as he 'does so.
Blo ckiing the patient's knees with his knees keeps the former
from collapsing and gives the rescuer time to shove his right
*(Number: refer to list on page 30).
arm through the looped hands with his head. ~ By, ii6ftding
,forward, the weight of, the patient then sags backtasily
over the shoulders and haa ai!&'~h6 toes are carried, just clear of the'~rounol. The rescuer then has both hands freeAd carry another person or equipment I or to use his hands for climbing or feeling his Way in the dark.
In doing the Fireman's, or Cross Back, or Army Carry, as it is variously known, the rescuer can secure the use of his hands by removing his neckerchief and tying the.arm. andIrg of his patient to4 gether as they Meet in front of his body (3). This gives him greater freedom in,climbing through windows and down ladders or fire escapes and makes of the Fireman's Carry a very much more effective method of transportation.
Carrying the Injured
During the great war, one of the problems which had to be faced was that of moving patients with chest wounds or after operations, with one rescuer, in case of,fire or e:kplosion. It was found possible to tie a triarligular bandage or neckerchief with the broad fold over the injury, having, the knot at the back of the patient so as to leave room~ *Aough for the rescuer to put his arm~and shoulder through
the loop near the knot. In this way, with the rescuer's back to the patient's back, the bandage.beld him in place so that he could be carried without engaging either of the rescueei arms (4)
When necessary, this broad bandage around the chest of a person to be carried can be reversed so that the knot comes in front. This would be in.case of some foot wound or injury and no chest wound. If sufficient slack has been left,,the rescuer can adjust the broad part of the bandage over his forehead, letting the patient sit upon his hips about at the belt line. This is an adaptation of the Tump Line, Carty (5) of the Far North packer, who had to transport his equipment from the coast to the Alaska gold fields.
When necessary to prepare a stretcher with the help of Poles, and no blanket or tarpaulin or shelter half is available, the litter poles (6) which may be of stout staves
be tied together by knotting the ends of several neckerchiefs to each pole in turn. This is difficult to do because, unless the knots are made just alike the neckerchiefs will not be of the ~ame length between. the poles, and this will make 18
An.4wkward,itrain on the patient at best it, is btit, a makeshift.
I 'made ai ~ hGrse litter and a travpisl'~ I of the Indlan, sort
(7) at an,outdoor first aid class in the &. tm"S, ScoAt, Camp, in which we used neckerchiefs and tria%k b
& r,baa rtJ
ages,for all of the lashings; we used them also 4 or pa svo&` harness on the horses, to hold the saddle blankk )in place and as a breast plate to hold the poles fr(mJ 410ping. It ,was a most convincing demonstration of the adaptability of the neckerchief bandage, because it actually~,setved to hold the poles in place to carry a patient for hall a mile over rough ground and would have served for sevefal miles equally well.
As Emergency Aid
As first aid is what you do with what you have with you, at the time of an accident, thus helping the injured person
and turning him over to the doctor with a better chance for recovery than if you had done nothing; it will be seen that the neckerchief
can serve a very large place in its
capacity as an emergency first aid 7VZ1
appliance. That is a good reason for its adoption as a part of thi ScGut Uniform and equipment, so that it will always be,,'available. In this capacity it may be used as a tourniquet .to'stop hemorrhage (8). (A full description of the use of the tourniquet is found in the Handbook for Boys, page 393, New Handbook, page 119.) The neckerchief is folded into a narrow cravat, and if there is no pressure pad available in the form of a smooth round stone, a I piece of wood, or cork, etc., a knot may be tied in the kerchief itself to serve as a pressure pad over the artery. The ends of the neckerchief should go twice around the arm or leg if possible and tied, then another knot is tied and the end of a stick inserted before tying again; this makes a twister, 'or Spanish windlass. When this is twisted tightly the circulation'in the artery to which the pressure is applied is'stopped, and naturally, so is the dangerous bleeding.
I It is a serious matter to leave a tourniquet on too long, so after twenty minutes or a half hour , if medical aid is not available the pressure on the tourniquet should be released and the blood let into the section of the artery which has been cut off, for if the blood is cut off from the part too long it may be necessary to amputate the member because of the tourniquet rather than because of the wound.
If it,18'"'ootconveiiieni,io hold tht endl of theiWistolif, I the' patient' xs'~:being;' ~transpo&4,"atiother
'be fastened, over th;e loos~ end of it and xf
or log so as to hold ft`in place., Persons rioil y:,q4
.,over b it%
ose who su er, from gxe~or
or heavy trucks as th
Saw,~uts ` may require tourniquets. The effect of the crush , in wtigh ;tguth as a car wheel, cuts the tissue but mashisr it~g
60 ~th ~. does not bleed at first The hemorrhage may start on the way to the hospital, so a tourniquet is ~ indicated, before th~patient is moved or taken to. the hospital. Inthij case it would be too late to apply it, after the spurting. 'had made, itself known. It iswell,to dy the
blee ng Stu
P~, ~ chapter o ' n Hemorrhage and Bleeding, including
re sure Point and The Use of the tourniquet, in the
Handbook.,for Boys. The use of the neckerchiefAn con
nection with this chapter is a subject for a whole evenings
practice, reqtuiring each Scout to,, apply pressure for each,
of the cases mentioned.
In connection with the consideration of bleeding, it is'
welt to remember that nei * ther the neckerchief nor the:fei
angular bandage is usually considered'a proper dressing to
put,.directly on an open wound, but in an emergency where `
a person may bleed to death, the danger of infection
nej~igible compared to. the danger of losing too much bl0'04,, so a, neckerchief folded into a thick pad (9) may be 'put,` directly over a wound of large area and held in place by anoth& neckerchief tightly wrapped and tied. Use, sterift' Pipet for direct application if you have it,. but remember, i h ve to use a neckerchief on a wound, that bleeding
you a wi4_ clean the wound by its'very force.
For*,wound of the head, or for holding a dressing in place on any part of the head, the triangular cap bandage is indicated. Every bandage must be anchored some place, so,we anchor the middle of the base of the triangle under thd~eye brows, letting the broad triangle cover the top of the head and omend down to the nape of 'the neck. This Sheik cap bandage is completed by closing the ends in the back, and tying in. the front, getting pressure if neces
T tig over one of the temporal artery pressure points. he constricting band around ' the forehead serves to cut dowh bleeding on. the top of the head. Covering the head keeps the patient from getting his fingers into the cut and infe~ting it 4nost infection comes from handling after the injury rather than from the injury itself. The point of
nape b' the n~"
'd ich extends to, the
ti ewit is tied, and tutked,~ in or fastkied"
Aip,'with,a sifoty pirr,~
Volded. into . a grav,4t,bandage the~ same as used for the Sea Scout tie, the bandage may be wrapped ar ound the forlehead =d tied if any wound of,the fo~7efiea~d needs covering oilf pressure is required without covering the,top oi the~
head (10). In this, form it may be used to cover one , ear 01) r as an eye bandage (12). as"a, blinder to keep,out, go
lit or as a holder, for a sterile compres&
The Trench Bandage
One of the most useful bandages which came out of the. World War is thi trench bandage (13), sometimes called the Tonuny, Atkins; bandage, as Jt came out of the British lines. Four wounded men were sent back to a dressing station having different head injuries one a broken jaw; one an injured eye; one an injured 'nose, and one with both ears injured. All were found to be done up by the' same methbd. The medical officer asked who did thern, up, and the Soldier replied: "I did Sir; it, was the only way I could make my bandage last out for those four fellows." Itisreallya'Zq,725~
_*,bandage and can be done with four feet
~troller bandage or a full sized triangle. The Scout neckereritef is a little short for a large head, so two should be used,
When analyzed, it' is really the barrel or bucket sling' knot of the siilor. These, soldiers had never seen this knot but evolved it out of the necessity of the moment. The center of ~ the bandage is placed beneath the chin' of the person with a head wound to be dresse&~ A single overhand knot is tied on top of the head, and if the, patient, is well enough to help. he may hold the ends loosely for yott; this is not at all necessary but it serves to keep his hands out ~ of m ischief while you are. working.
. You then take hold of the front and back of the single knots on top of the head and pull them apart so that the 106P goes completely around the head. The rest is just a' matter of adjustment, which is done with the, two ends. It makes a perfect non skid bandage for b.6th'eyes (14), both ears ( 15) , the nose (16), for a bullet hole through Vothcheeks (17), and for a broken jaw, (18). The broken jaw adjustnient ' is the most difficult because both knot$ must be slipped down near the point of the 4'
jaw and pulled tight enough to support it, the tie being,made on top of
the head. This is'one of the rilost,interestir 1~;,
triangular bandage for which a neckerchief b~,',v
The Four Tail Bandage
Two neckerchiefs may be used,to take the place ol~., ~6
four fail bandage (19) for a fracture or dislocation of',,*t,
jaw. The first one is placed from the front of the.c.
back and tied behind the ears in a square knot. The seco", cravat, is started with the center below the jaw ancr tie 4 on top of the head in a square knot. To keep the bandagea,: in place, the two right hand'tails of the upper and lower, bandages are tied together, and then follow suit with the left ends at the back of the head.
While the ordinary triangular bandage is long enough to make a cravat bandage for the temple, the Scout neck&chief might be short for a person with a large head, so use two neckerchiefs, taking care that the broad compress comes where pressure is wanted. As usual, start with the middle of the bandage over the compress on the wound, at the temple, Carry one end under the chin and theother end over the top of the head, crossing "the ends above the opposite car so as to finish, around the forehead, tying, over the compress with a square knot. This is still another bandage which has a use in fracture or dislocation of the~ jaw.
For a, shoulder, bandage (?0), a neckerchief should be folded up in its narrow cravat form and passed from around the neck on the injured side and tied below the opposite arm pit next to.the unclad body; this is merely to anchor our shoulder bandage. Next, take the broad central point of the triangle and fold it over the shoulder loop, tucking the end under to anchor it. Place the compress, if there is one, or if it is a burn saturate the, cloth with ungueritine, olive oil, or whatever dressing is applied, and bring the bandage over the shoulder, folding up a margin, so that it does not extend below the burned area, then wrap the ends around the arm a couple of times until there remains just enough to tie conveniently. Do not tie tight enough to shut off circulation.
The neckerchief bandage for the neck or chest (21).is started from the injured side of the body, the point go
. 6 ~ I
o A'puldet and the lower, margin ting
60 e. 1~'Tie' the tails'vbf: the ~h6ckei~hkf
i "'Jin Oft,
injVii4 ""side; bring the*point ovekth~ ;.shoixlder it by means of a,small handkerchief .,of%r'ri'* effectively, I making a complete coverihi,160. OU'Ob hurn . 'r an abraded surface which wouldlk4ri'
in , place. With a 'square neckerchief, it cover,more burned surface of the back or chesC*441'.' an ordinary triangle, because the extra cloth can dvrwn.~ If both, back and front were to be c bandage would be repeated on the other side.
For Fractured Ribs
The neckerchief bandage for fractured ribs is app ~f the same~ as the triangular bandage would be, except 1h there is more cloth and consequently a better binder is in, ade (22). If only one neckerchief. is available it should'. be f olded to the medium cravat width so that the centArl, of it comes over the broken rib and overlaps it well. While" the patient exhales as much as possible, the, ends are tied 1 on the good side., By tying half the knot and then finishing,," with a surgeon's knot and an extra pull as the patient
hales, abetter result can, be obtained. A much better dress
ing ~can be put on if four neckerchiefs are available, one ' folded into a pad about ten inches long by two inches in Width to go under the knots on the uninjured side, whilef4e extra two bandages are overlaid, like shingles, above and below the first compress which was put on.
For.Broken. Collar Bone
When the collar bone, which connects the shoulder blade with,the breast bone, is bro6n, the weight of the shoulder throws the, curved end of the broken bone downward and inward, endangering the arteries beneath it which the bvne, would ordinarily protect. It is very painful. Open the ,shirt or coat and shove the hand of the injured side in the opening of ~ the I shirt and against the opposite shoulder. Take two neckerchiefs, slipping one folded like a narrow, cravat under each arm pit and tie the upper right ~to the lower'. left with a square knot behind the body. Then take the two remaining corners and tie them with a half knot; pulling it tight, and finish with the.extra twist around the standing part, which makes a square knot into a surgeon's knot, (23). This'must be set up tight so that the shoulder blades are pulled.
Another form of dressing for the collar bone, suitable'
for baskq 'ball and' foot ball emerpp,, Uie'u.ivolv6d is made with'three ane Cke; ~~k~,w*th stiff covers (24). . T~wo k iiaittiw' cravat' form are ~tied to. the e~_ Thebtoad point of the triangle, is wrappe bb~ so, that it comes in the center of the' is Placed, ajMnst 'the shoulder blades' and b4 , age"is carried under the arm pit and overifies back across the book and round in the front, where,.,
& tiedlto,#e, left bandage, which is then similar to the
Thes614'fe tied in a square knot tight enough to use th as,.a Splint supporting both shoulder blades. The a tht'injured side is stuck between the upper buttons ~of c4it or shirt and held fast by re buttons' 19. 1reatments is sufficiently effective to 'minimiz e during the period of getting the patient to a t r for Broken Arm
Perhaps the commonest use of the triangular bandage form of neckerchief is the sling for a broken or injured' arm (25). Fold the neckerchief into the triangle and tic' aknot at one of the broad points, leaving the others fre&I Apply this tied point to the injured elbo w,'the* broad hem"
L"0 he "nj ured side. , The forearm i's then laid n
ga n the ke chief, one end of which is carried ~Aroun&.
st e n c r of
nd th e k the patient and the other overthe fore ,~, arm, meeting the other end. The sling is completed, by, tying in a. square knot. The tied broad point, fits'over the,'.
pt of the elbow 'and keeps the sling from slipping,. and,~
o t free point can,be adjusted so that the entire orean A.; can be, included in.the sling, as the, neckerchief would Ue too small to make a perfect sling. Ordinarily. the , lbroad,' p6int,is pinned over the elbow with a safety piri~butje*
To make a modified Arm Sling
PDOYV~M "Ve a iAd~ a knot
71d t f 4ther shoulder e injured.sojhat the
prMSBUTe Of Ifi * ting '. *ould cause 'more, pain,,,w may
nocessaryl' ' 'mbd* ed sling (26). Im,thi CA
9 use a s se'the
a*As pli4d in the 1jidirliock like arrangement of the. mid
~:6fthe,triangle ali&boe of the ends placed over the uii,i iiied'Shbulder. lnsj*&4~of laying the other end or point o ~ the: bandage over the, inpred shoulder, it should be tupked under that arm Oft *hd tied behind the neck as before. This form of', sfu* is very often used when the arm has been injured for it 1ong time and the shoulder has become chafed from the Oessisig.
The narrow cravat sling (27) is useful when there is a strain.or sprain of the hand, or when the forearm or hand is splintered. It is not necessary in these cases w support
the whole forearm, and the kerchief folded into its narI row, form is used as a loop or swing to carry the weight
of the injured member and advertise to the world that it is
Thus his companions would, avoid'. tot irl
rough treatment of the hand or arm that was being carried
in a sling; likewise the patient himself would be reminded of his inj u,ry and would refrain from using it to its detrime4t.
The triangular form makes a sple did burned h band
e n I apd
ag~, (28), and if made on a table or rest, the bandage iS,laid flat, the point away from the fingers, aftd the hand placed,
I ~ it . T there is nothing to rest the hand upon, so
u In , Usually
th injured hand is stuck out toward the operator, 'who lays the bandage point toward the wrist, covering the burned or injured surface. He tells the patient to hold the, point in
place with the fingeri of his. tininjured hand. Taking"ibe eri4s, he folds the kerchief completelly',Qver the end of the hand and comes up covering the under surface with the surplus cloth of the center of the bandage. , He then brings the ends toward the wrist, crossing them afterwards and tying so as to include all loose ends, thus preventing the air from touching the burned surface. This is fine to hold a picric acid dressing in place, or one saturated in unguentine or carron oil. If necessary,the neckerchief itself may be smeared*with the unguents to allay,the pain.
An interesting bandage to stop bleeding in the palm of the hand where the artery loops, is the boxing glove bandage (29). The narrow cravat form is used and a knot. tied in the center of this. , This knot serves a double purpose as a compress and, as a pressure pad. The knot.is placed directly over the cut and the patient then clinches his handover it. The ends are used to tie the.fingers down, making a figure 8, the bandage going in both directions and finishing with a knot 'over the radial artery on the wrist.
The figure 8 form of bandage of the hand is excellent for the, palm (30) or the knuckle's (31). The center of the bandage is placed over the injured,part in each. case, whether it be the knuckles or the palm of the hand . The bandage folds can be repeated over themselves, if additional pressure is necessary, until the entire length of the bandage is used up.
The, elbow is a hard place to bandage, and the figure 8 is' also e;ccellent for that (32). If the wound be above the,elbow put the center of the bandage over it; cross behitid the arm; carry below and tie or repeat'back and tie over the injury if pressure is needed. Direct pressure over the injury may be secured by placing the bandage with the center over the injury and folding the ends over and over,, tying directly,on top of the wound.
The, 11 Uarrow: c . ravat makes a splendid fie' foi, g;~ 1W
two I 6f, Aese,,'oi* even one used in the
splinii"oi an ti~pe~r I arr 'place, (33 Pad4i#
th A injury in 'but
for e 1 Splints
can be~ made of folded neckeichiefs, (14 the operator should not% err in using too litd,6 ~~j4M,
several and,make thick padding so ,that zther e is no pressure Where the broken 1~ones overlap. I Three narrow cravats make an excellent dressing to hold a splint. in
Yace for 'a forearm fracture (35).
his would give, for a full arm splint,
five triangles for tying and as many
for padding, and one for a sling.
,When the thigh or the upper L leg is
fractured, it is customary to immobi
lize the whole side, so seven triangles
folded into narrow cravats would be
necessary (36), unless the patient's Palm of the Hand
belt could be used. If the patient is
to be transported, an extra kerchief may be used to fasten the good foot to the injured foot.
Knee, Injuries Elbow Bandare
. Upper Arm
A broken knee cap requires 'a very special treatment, and in this case a splint I is placed under the leg, I and a lot of padding is needed from the hollow of the knee to the heel. Four necker o chiefs will be necessary to hold this splint in place one at the top of the splint well above the knee, one at the ankle, and two coming just above and below the knee cap (37), entirely immobilizing that joint.
Fracture of the leg would require'_
about, the same number of trianglesi fo, 6,A'
recommended as ties (38),, as U pto.
I we,. as A , 'toa;
paddiq Wfule wearing shorts in summer are
not uncommon f rom falls, and it a scrambling, oVer the rocks, a :Pad; sterile if possible, should be placed~,oyer the, injury and held in'place with a triangular binder (39).. 'In this case the broad base of the triAiigle is at the top, the, point f olded in to make a wide cravat. The ends are crossed behind the' knee, one being brought tightly around in front over the uppermar'gin'
and the other around the lower margin of the band finishing with a knot behind the knee. This is. a bandage but a very effective one, as it will not slip wht;,~
the patient walks.
Ankle and Foot Injuries
The neckerchief is excellent for an ankle, bandage ~40). If to cover an injury, the ordinary ankle bandage will sArie. Make a broad cravat, the center of which is placed, over the heel.' ring the ends to tece top of the foot and cross
them, one passing
'K around the foot at the instep and the
other around the ankle just above the heel. Cross above the instep and around the sole of the foot and'tie on top of the foot.
For a sprained ankle, the snow shoe or skate hitch should be used to give instant relief until the patient can be rer.
behind the heel a~nd crossed. The leff end is"t, cked
U, the heel loop andthe right end is similarly tileg Z
oV1ier,1 side., Then both end's art brought up overl
iiOtep and tied tightly. TheTe is usually enough slii*: to put con'siderable pressure on Ahe strained ainkle~, mw~les, and the two turns of the bandage around the
ankle will ~give a great deal of support.
The foot bandage, sometimes called the "army sock"
'(41),,can be madej but it will be necessary to use mo , re
than tlie~ triangle if the foot be a large one and if this
is to, be done with a Scout neckerchief. Place the foot
~,ona smoothly laid scarf with the point extending about'
'4ye inches beyond the toes. The point' is folded back
,over the instep and held in place by carrying the ends
the ankle, cros sing in the back and tying in front.
available, a safety pin may be used to pin the corner ike has been folded back over the foot in place to keep it from slipping out.
A padded splint on the bottom of a crushed foot may be held in place by, a figure 8 around the foot, finishing *round the ankle, (42). Both the padding and the, tie can be provided by neckerchiefs.
4 he s1pica bandage,(43) has many applications;, it can.
be applipd to the hip very nicely, wrapping the broad
pointaround the belt or around an especially tied narrow
cravat bandage around the waist to anchor it. The
broad, point is, then carried down over the hip, covering.
the, If it, extends too Lfar. downward, it may be
folded back toxnake a broad hem and then the ends passed
around,"crosied and tied'on the outside, very similarly to
that of the shoulder spica.
0 ther.uses are as folded kerchiefs for cloth pads placed
directly over wounds to stop bleeding (44), or for hot or cold applications in case of sprains or strains.
pqoOl4,,'1re1',' etche, d"
,Where several injured.
out on the ground awaiting tra,~Lrtadbn d
without shade, neckerchiefs can be suppo I rted
on bits of branches to mak sun shelters for these 'persons. (45). Sometimes when a canoe tips over in mid lake, the neckerchief is the first aid appliance for tying the'~
hands of the passengers across the 71
boat so that they cannot let go their
hold on the keel when they become OAAZWQC:
numb from extosure (46). In this latter case t e wrists 5hould be crossed as in the "Tied Hands Carry"'and thF neckerchief tied around the crossed. wrists from top to Hip Bandage bottom in a square knot.
Last of all it is well to remember that a large, wound which is bleeding or crushed is unpleasant to behold; is upsetting for the patient himself to see, and if th~ wearer of the kerchief knows nothing else he can certainly cmrer .the injury with his kerchief against dust and flies (47)
1 17 7~ ,
sumai4y of First Ai.d U I se's for :E' h' e
The Scout Neckerchief may be used:
1. For the "Fireman's Drag."
2. For the Tied Hands Carry.
3. For "Fireman's Carry."
4. For carr in atient with a chest wound.
y 9 p
11 11 11 with a foot wound or other injury,, 'and, no
6. For tying litter poles together to make a stretcher.
7. For making a horse litter and travois Indian style.
8. For makin a tourniquet to stop hemorrhage.
ii. . 12. 13. 14. is. 16. 17. 18. 19.
As a temporary pad placed. against a wound to stop bleeding;'4
As a bandage for a wound of the head, without covering fop of head.
As a bandage to cover one ear.
"1 11 11 to cover one eye.
As a Trench cor Tommy Atkins bandage.
As a bandage for both eyes. for both ears. for the nose. for both cheeks. for a broken Jaw.
To take the place of the four tail bandage using two neckerchiefs.
20. For a shoulder bandage.
21. As a bandage for neck or chest.
22. for fiactured ribs.
23. f or a broken collar bone.
24. splint for a broken collar bone.
25. As'an arm sling (regular).
26. " a modified sling for chafed shoulder.
27. " " narrow cravat sling.
28. " " burned hand bandage.
29. " " boxing glove bandage of hand.
30. " figure 8 bandage of hand palm.
31. 11 knuckles.
33. " (2) narrow,cravat ties for upper arm splint.
34. " padding for splints.
35. For (3) forearm splints.
36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47.
lizing entire side. (7 immobi
~ immobilizing knee cap. (4 to 5) f racture of leg. (1) pad and (1) to cover knee.
As sprafifed ankle or snow shoe hitch (1). " foot bandage or Army sock. " figure 8 for splint for f oot. " spica bandage of the hip (2). " cloth pads for hot or cold applications. sun shelter for injured persons awaiting transport. tie to fasten hands across overturned canoe. covering for open wound (or wet pad.)
, I : ~,
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