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Totem Pole Design
Totem Pole Stories
Use of Color
Totem Paper Knives
A Totem Talks
By Robert De Groat
Distribution of North American
Native Indian Tribes
Mohawks: Bear, wolf, and turtle.
Oneidas: Bear, wolf, and turtle.
Onondagas: Bear, wolf, turtle, deer, beaver, eel, snipe.
Cayugas: Bear, wolf, turtle, deer, beaver, eel, snipe, hawk.
Senecas: Bear, wolf, turtle, deer, beaver, heron, snipe, hawk.
Tuscaroras: Bear, gray wolf, yellow wolf, great turtle, little turtle,
beaver, eel, snipe.
Hurons or Wyandots: Big turtle, little turtle, mud turtle, wolf, bear,
beaver, deer, porcupine, striped turtle, prairie turtle, snake, hawk.
Algonkin Tribes on the Atlantic
Delawares or Lenapes: Wolf, bear, dog, possum, turtle, little turtle, mud turtle,
great turtle, yellow eel, turkey, crane, chicken.
Mohicans: Wolf, turtle, turkey, bear, dog, opossum, yellow eel, crane, chicken.
Abenakis (Maine): Wolf, wild cat (black), bear, snake, spotted animal, beaver,
caribou, sturgeon, muskrat, pigeon hawk, squirrel, spotted frog, crane, porcupine.
Mississippi Algonkin Tribes
Miamis: Wolf, loon, eagle, buzzard, panther, turkey, raccoon, snow, sun,
Sauks and Foxes: Wolf, bear, deer, elk, hawk, eagle, fish, buffalo,
thunder, pine, fox, sea, sturgeon, big tree.
Shawnees: Wolf, loon, bear, buzzard, panther, owl, turkey, deer, raccoon,
turtle, snake, horse, rabbit.
Menomonis: Bear, porcupine, turtle, crane, wolf, otter,
sturgeon, sunfish, big thunder, golden eagle, fork-tail hawk, bald eagle, turkey-buzzard,
winter hawk, red tail hawk, crow, raven, beaver, elk, pine squirrel, wolf, dog, deer, bald
eagle, fish hawk, great heron, coot, marten, fisher.
Ojibways: Crane, catfish, loon, bear, marten, reindeer, wolf, merman, pike,
lynx, eagle, rattlesnake, moose, black duck or cormorant, goose, sucker, sturgeon, white
fish, beaver, gull, hawk, mud turtle, snapping turtle, little turtle, snipe, duck, snake,
muskrat, heron, hull-head or bull-pout, sparrow, hawk, water snake, forked tree, wildcat,
otter, buffalo, birch-bark, white oak tree, grizzly bear, reindeer, pike.
Seminoles: Wind, tiger or panther, otter, bird, deer, wolf, snake
Chickasaws: Wildcat, bird, panther, fish, deer, raccoon, squirrel,
alligator, wolf, blackbird.
Cherokees: Wolf, holly, acorn, deer, bird, long prairie.
Hopi: Horn-flute, mountain sheep, deer, antelope, elk, seed grass, ant,
corn, rain cloud, rainbow, lightning, agave, rabbit-brush, duck, frog, tadpole, snake,
puma, dove, cactus, marmot, skunk, raccoon, squash, crane, pigeon hawk, thistle, eagle,
hawk, turkey, sun, star, chicken hawk, willow, parrot, cottonwood, macaw, corn, badger,
butterfly, coyote, skeleton, hemlock, buck-grass, squash, yellow fox, gray fox, juniper,
striped squirrel, lizard, spider, fir, oak, magpie, field mouse, porcupine, turkey
Zunis: Crane or pelican, evergreen oak, coyote, badger, antelope, sun,
eagle, parrot-macaw, cotton-tail rabbit, tortoise, rouse, bear, maize plant, deer, turkey,
toad or frog, rattle-snake, sunflower.
Scattered Tribes of the Pueblos: Calabash, mountain lion, turquoise,
granite, arrow, humming bird, blue bird, timber, gopher, pine, boulder goose.
Mohaves: Moon, caterpillar, coyote, rain cloud, sun, beaver, mesquite.
Pole from the Tlingit
Tlingit: Raven, frog, goose, sea lion, owl, salmon, beaver, codfish, skate,
wolf, eagle, bear, killer-whale, shark, auk, gull, sparrow-hawk, thunder-bird.
Haidas: Raven clan, killer-whale, black bear, loon, woodpecker,
thunder-bird, hawk, wolf, dogfish, devilfish, owl, land otter, grizzly bear, sea
mountain goat, rainbow.
Eagle clan: beaver, sculpin, frog, raven, dogfish, halibut, land otter,
starfish, hummingbird, skate.
Tsimshian: Raven, codfish, starfish, eagle, halibut, beaver, whale, wolf,
crane, grizzly bear, bear, killer whale, dolphin, sun, moon, grouse.
Omahas: Male elk and deer, red maize, bear, turtle or tortoise, bird, white
crane, verdigris, or green clay, deer head, buffalo head, white clay, buffalo tail,
reptiles, thunder, black shoulder, wolf.
Poncas: Thunder, fire, wind-makers, wildcat, bald elk, earth, medicine,
dark buffalo, osage.
Iowas: Black bear, wolf, white wolf, black wolf, gray wolf, coyote, eagle,
thunder-being, golden eagle, gray eagle, spotted eagle, bald eagle, elk, beaver, pigeon,
raccoon, grouse, buffalo, rattlesnake, owl.
Kansas or Kaw: Deer, black eagle, prairie wolf, tent, bear, duck, turtle,
thunder, buffalo, elk, earth, white eagle, raccoon, osage, black bear, ghost,
Osages: Sun, comet, buffalo bull, black bear, elk, swan, bald eagle,
turtle, fish, pond-lily.
Winnebagoes: Wolf, elk, bear, deer, buffalo, snake, eagle, thunder.
Mandans: Wolf, bear, prairie chicken, good knife, eagle, flathead, high
Crows: Prairie dog, skunk, lost lodges, bear's paw, fish catchers, raven,
Creek Indians: Wolf, bear, skunk, alligator, panther, mole, fish, hickory
nut, beaver, snake, bear, deer, wind, fox, maize, salt, otter, bird, toad, raccoon,